history of daoism

Translated literally, it means "the Teaching of the Way" or "Path", or "Tao". The Huang-Lao tradition. History of Compilation. The history of Daoism can be read, in part, as a succession of revelations, each of which includes but remains superior to the earlier ones. The historians who recorded the progress of these varying intellectual and religious currents were themselves court officials and often were active participants in the movements they describe. On the other hand, there are other historia… Instead of insisting one is right all the time, one can empty one's self of that kind of pride and be open to learning from other people. Xuanzong's rule is still considered one of the most prosperous and stable in the history of China and the high point of the Tang Dynasty. At this time, promoters of a primitivistic and utopian Taiping (“Great Peace”) ideology continued to support the imperial Liu (Han) family, claiming that they would be restored to power through the aid of the Li clan. David was the younger son of Adarnase V, a representative of the Second House of Tao, a branch of the Kartli line of the Georgian Bagrationi (Bagratid) dynasty which held sway over Tao (a province on the historic Georgian-Armenian border known to the Armenians as Tayk; now part of Turkey) since the extinction of the original Tao line in the 940s. … Cite This Work Browse 500 sets of daoism daoism confucianism legalism history flashcards. This philosophy corresponds closely with the Logos of the Roman stoics like Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. During the ritual, the Grand Master and his assistants must perform every action and recitation in accordance with tradition or else their efforts are wasted. Even the coining of the term creates ambiguity about what counts as ‘Daoism’. Taoism exerted a great influence during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) and the emperor Xuanzong (reigned 712-756 CE) decreed it a state religion, mandating that people keep Taoist writings in their home. Confucianism focuses on human society and the duties of its members. Taoism was founded by a philosopher named Laozi (LAO-dzuh) who lived in China some time around 400 BC, right around the same time that Aristotle and Platowere laying the foundations for Western philosophy. The tree which seemed to die came back to life in the spring season and the grass grew again. Taoism was formally established in the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). In the 2nd century … Mark, Emily. Taoism. In my mind it is the first place a student of the Tao should begin. tried to organize the writings and ideas that represented the major intellectual alternatives available All is in harmony in nature, and Taoism tries to encourage people to accept and live that kind of harmony as well. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. to 2nd century C.E. All of these texts are based on the same kinds of observation of the natural world and the belief that human beings are innately good and only needed a reminder of their inner nature to pursue virtue over vice. Taoism (/ ˈ t aʊ-/), or Daoism (/ ˈ d aʊ ɪ z əm /, / ˈ d aʊ-/), is a philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (Chinese: 道; pinyin: Dào; lit. Daoism is a philosophy, a religion, and a way of life that arose in the 6th century BCE in what is now the eastern Chinese province of Henan. Despite categorization by Chinese and Western scholars of Yao as an ethnic minority with a primitive culture, it is now recognized that not only are certain strains of religious Daoism prominent in Yao ritual traditions, but the Yao culture also shares many elements … Harmony from balancing opposite forces in nature. It emphasizes doing what is natural and "going with the flow" in accordance with the Tao (or Dao), a cosmic force which flows through all things and binds and releases them. The Yellow Emperor also was the patron of technology; and the classic works of many arcane arts, including alchemy, medicine, sexual techniques, cooking, and dietetics, were all placed under his aegis. Lu Dongbinby Mary Harrsch (Photographed at the Field Museum, Chicago) (CC BY-NC-SA). The concept of the importance of a harmonious existence of balance fit well with the equally popular philosophy of Confucianism (also native to China). Taoism encourages individual worship in the home, and the rituals and festivals are community events which bring people together, but they should not be equated with worship practices of other religions such as attending church or temple. Like Confucianism it emerged during the Age of Philosophers (See Confucianism and Chinese Philosophy) and is said to have been founded by a humble, legendary Chinese mystic named Lao-tze and given some structure by influential Taoist scholars such as the Taoist master Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu). Nonetheless, such official oversight tends to purge from the official record… 21 Dec 2020. Taoism is China's native religion (as opposed to Buddhism) Taoism originated in the ancient spirit worship, originated in the Yellow Emperor has a history of about 190 Daojiao (religion) 4. Taoist religious festivals are presided over by a Grand Master (a kind of High Priest) who officiates, and these celebrations can last anywhere from a few days to over a week. The relationship between Daoism and the state is also explored in depth. According to this belief, the way of the Tao is in accordance with nature while resistance to the Tao is unnatural and causes friction. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It is often described simply as ancient Chinese wisdom. This belief in allowing life to unfold in accordance with the Tao does not extend to Taoist rituals, however. The Dao philosophy is founded by Lao Zi, with further exposition by Zhuang Zi. However, in many ways, Daoism is not ancient, rather it is a living tradition and philosophy. He stopped writing when he felt he was finished, handed the book to Yin Hsi, and walked through the western pass to vanish into the mist beyond. The recognition that all things and all people are connected is expressed in the development of the arts, which reflect the people's understanding of their place in the universe and their obligation to each other. The history of Taoism—like that of any spiritual tradition—is an interweaving of officially recorded historical events, and the transmission of the internal experience that its practices reveal. The information on the life of Laozi transmitted by Sima Qian probably derives directly from their teaching. Originating in prehistoric China, it has exerted a powerful influence over Chinese culture throughout the ages. The philosophy of Taoism grew into a religion of the peasant classes of the Shang Dynasty, who lived closely with nature. Ancient History Encyclopedia. One has to differentiate very clearly the Dao/Tao philosophy and the Dao/Tao religion. Taoism or Daoism is a type of belief, or a way of thinking about life. As he was leaving China through the western pass, the gatekeeper Yin Hsi stopped him because he recognized him as a philosopher. Lao-Tzu probably did not exist and the Tao-Te-Ching is a compilation of sayings set down by an unknown scribe. Daoism, sometimes spelled Taoism, comes from Ancient China and the writings of philosophers like Laozi, who lived during the 5th or 4th century BCE. The earliest texts of the Tao Te Ching that have been excavated (written on bamboo tablets) date back to the late 4th century BCE. This section is a guide to the ancient religious philosophy of Taoism, including history, and spiritual practices, ethics and martial arts. Historian John M. Koller writes: Yin-yang thought began as an attempt to answer the question of the origin of the universe. Cults of individuals searching for immortality and a holistic philosophical system called correlative cosmology emerged. The term “Daoism” is also associated with assorted naturalistic or mystical religions. Although Taoism and the Tao-Te-Ching were not originally associated with the symbol known as the yin-yang, they have both come to be because the philosophy of Taoism embodies the yin-yang principle and yin-yang thought. Emily Mark studied history and philosophy at Tianjin University, China and English at SUNY New Paltz, NY. "The Old Master" and was the founder of Daoism. Worshipping a “Huanglao jun,” the movement gained a vast number of adherents throughout eastern China. A great many charismatic leaders came from the Li family, and certain of them claimed to be the god Laozi returned to earth; a sage of western China, Li Hong, who had actually lived during the 1st century bce, became the favourite recurrent figure of later would-be messiahs. Many historians argue that there was no historical figure named Laozi: the name means “Old Master” or “Wise One,” and it’s possible that the early Taoists simply attributed their philosophy to a fictional or metaphorical figure named Laozi. The Tao-Te-Ching is an attempt to remind people that they are connected to others and to the earth and that everyone could live together peacefully if people would only be mindful of how their thoughts and actions affect themselves, others, and the earth. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Daoism : History and dogmas. A century and a half later, however, as the power of the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 ce) declined, the populace no longer hoped for a renewal of Han rule. Daoism can also be called "the other way." Daoist Philosophy The Daoist movement began during the Eastern Zhou (Chou) dynasty (c. 770–256 B.C. If a person adapts to the changes in life easily, that person will be happy; if a person resists the changes in life, that person will be unhappy. They concluded that when people died they went somewhere else where they continued to live, they did not just disappear. Daoism was adaptable, evolving to fill spiritual gaps created by the vagaries of life. The history of Taoism stretches throughout Chinese history. Without yang nothing can come into existence. literati of the Han dynasty (c. 200 B.C.E.) During its entire history, it has coexisted alongside the Confucian tradition, which served as the ethical and religious basis of the institutions and arrangements of the Chinese empire. The conflict created a need for new political models to solve the crisis. Early History of Taoism Taoism's origins may be traced to prehistoric Chinese religions in China; to the composition of the Tao Te Ching (3rd or 4th century BCE); or to the activity of Zhang Daoling (2nd century AD). During the Tang Dynasty, Taoism became the state religion under the reign of the emperor Xuanzong because he believed it would create harmonious balance in his subjects and, for awhile, he was correct. The best way for a person to live, according to Taoism, is to submit to whatever life brings and be flexible. Diagrams. Introduction. The Doctrine of Morality is regarded as their holy Bible. Web. Their observations of the natural world influenced their philosophy, and one of the things they incorporated was the concept of eternity. There are no "bad people" according to Taoist principles, only people who behave badly. To Lao-Tzu, efforts to develop and regulate the desires and emotions seemed artificial, tending to interfere with the harmony of nature. These essays honour one of the pioneers of Daoist studies, Emeritus … "Daoism and Buddhism in China were influenced by each other as they developed. Purification is a very important element throughout the ritual. The rituals of Taoist practice are absolutely in accordance with the Taoist understanding but have been influenced by Buddhist and Confucian practices so that, in the present day, they are sometimes quite elaborate. Daoism in the Qin and Han periods (221 bce –220 ce) of the Chinese empire Esoteric traditions of eastern China. I-Ching Hexagramsby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). One has to differentiate very clearly the Dao/Tao philosophy and the Dao/Tao religion. Today, Daoism isn’t hard to come across, whether it’s in a movie or just on YouTube. The easterners brought the cults of their own region to the capital, recommending and supervising the worship of astral divinities who would assure the emperor’s health and longevity. As a result, this period led to the development of many new philosophies. Over the last decade there has been a marked increase in the study of Daoism especially in Japan, China and the West, with a new generation of scholars broadening our understanding of the religion. License. In ancient times, the ritual was performed on a staircase leading to an altar to symbolize ascent from one's common surroundings to the higher elevation of the gods. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Mark, Emily. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Everyone's ancestor who had ever died still lived on in another place and in the presence of the gods; Confucians believed in this same concept and revered their ancestors as part of their daily practices. The broken and the unbroken lines, the yin and yang, were both necessary for that answer because the principles of yin and yang were necessary for life. This is an interesting departure from the usual Taoist understanding of "going with the flow" and not worrying about external rules or elaborate religious practices. Though they were eventually defeated by the imperial forces, the tendency toward messianic revolt continued to manifest itself at frequent intervals. Please support the World History Playlist! Thus, through this video, we will examine the birth, growth, decay, and restoration of Daoism. The reasons for this are not far to seek. The emperor was to perform sacrifices to the furnace (zao), which would enable him to summon spiritual beings. The Tao-Te-Ching was most likely not written by Lao-Tzu at the western pass and may not have been written by him at all. Daoism: A Brief History. The Tao Te Ching. One of their number, Li Shaojun, bestowed on the Han emperor Wudi counsels that are a résumé of the spiritual preoccupations of the time. Actually, all things happen in accordance with the flow of the Tao and, since the Tao is natural, all things are natural. From the court of the King of Qi (in present-day Shandong province) where they were already expounding the Laozi in the 3rd century bce, the teachings of the Huang-Lao masters soon spread throughout learned and official circles in the capital. Daoism was not created on one specific date by a specific person. Written by Emily Mark, published on 22 February 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. History of The Tao | Origins of Taoism Where Did Daoism Begin | Where Did Taoists Come From. Taoism or Daoism is a Chinese philosophy and folk religion of people primarily in the rural areas of China. What Happened in Taoist History; 6th to 2nd centuries B.C.E. Dao jiao: Dao religion Dao jia: Dao philosophy TWO SCHOOLS 3. The last recorded Li Hong was executed in 1112. Brief History of Daoist Lineages in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Daoism 1. Much of the Taoist infrastructure was destroyed, monks and priests were sent to labor camps. In the present day, the ritual may be performed on a stage or the ground, and it is understood from the text and the actions of the Grand Master that he is ascending. History. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 22 Feb 2016. Although their doctrine lost its direct political relevance during the reign of the emperor Wudi (reigned 141–87 bce), their ensemble of teachings concerning both ideal government and practices for prolonging life continued to evoke considerable interest and is perhaps the earliest truly Daoist movement of which there is clear historical evidence. Daoism, Confucianism, and Legalism. Also originating in the eastern coastal region (Shandong), alongside these same thaumaturgic (wonder-working) tendencies, was the learned tradition of the Huang-Lao masters, devotees of the legendary “Yellow Emperor” (Huangdi) and Laozi. Defining "Daoism": A Complex History* Daoism focuses on the ability of ordinary people to relate to the basic cosmic forces. These strands were constantly intermingling as China developed, and even today the… The spirits and the gods are invoked during these times to drive away the dark spirits causing the problems. Laozi (also called: Lao Dan, Li Er, Laotzu, and Laotse) is the founder of this religion. Including contributions from the foremost scholars in the field, Daoism in History presents new and important research. Two of the most influential of these philosophies were Confucianism and Daoism. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The world of changing things that constitutes nature can exist only when there are both yang and yin. History & System of Taoism. Daoism is an umbrella that covers a range of similarly motivated doctrines. Whether the origin of the book and the belief system originated with a man named Lao-Tzu or when it was written or how is immaterial (the book itself would agree) and all that matters is what the work says and what it has come to mean to readers. The philosophy of Taoism grew into a religion of the peasant classes of the Shang Dynasty, who lived closely with nature. The altar still plays an important part in the ritual as it is seen as the place where the earthly realm meets with the divine. Laozi (is) Pantheistic. History of Chinese Daoism- Volume I employs a historical-descriptive method to trace the evolution of Chinese Daoism. She has published historical essays and poetry. The emperors, anxious to consolidate and expand their power, were a natural focus for wonder workers and specialists in esoteric arts. At the end of the 1st century bce, he presented to the emperor a “Classic of the Great Peace” (Taipingjing) that he claimed had been revealed to him by a spirit, who had come to him with the order to renew the Han dynasty. The great Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in the east in 184 ce. Choose from 500 different sets of history daoism confucianism flashcards on Quizlet. Books Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Choose from 500 different sets of history daoism confucianism flashcards on Quizlet. The primarily idea and focus of Taoism is the Tao (way, path), which is important to be followed, not taking any action that is contrary to nature … ... continue to openly share what was once ‘secret’ Daoist arts and practises. Livia Kohn examines the connections between the defining concepts, history, and practices of Daoism, and key issues in Asian and Western comparative religions, making this the essential text for students studying Daoism on World Religions courses. Taoism is regarded as the oldest of China's three religion-philosophies (Confucianism and Buddhism are the other two). Instead of fighting against life and others, one can yield to circumstances and let the things which are not really important go. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Over the last decade there has been a marked increase in the study of Daoism especially in Japan, China and the West, with a new generation of scholars broadening our understanding of the religion. Every prayer and spell which makes up a Taoist ritual or festival must be spoken precisely and every step of the ritual observed perfectly. Taoism (/ ˈ t aʊ-/), or Daoism (/ ˈ d aʊ ɪ z əm /, / ˈ d aʊ-/), is a philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (Chinese: 道; pinyin: Dào; lit. The Tao-Te-Ching is not a 'scripture' in any way. The Zhuangzi contains its own history of thought (Chapter 33) tracing the development of ideas leading up to Zhuangzi's doctrine, which we could call "mature" Daoism. Along with the philosophy called Confucianism , Daoism has helped to shape Chinese culture. Taoism evolved in response to changing times, with its doctrine and associated practices being revised and refined. Classes. ISBN: 0761818685 9780761818687: OCLC Number: 45023099: Description: 1 volume : illustrations ; 24 cm: Contents: Chapter 1. The Yellow Emperor, with whose reign Sima Qian’s universal history opens, was depicted as a ruler of the Golden Age who achieved his success because he applied his teachers’ precepts to government. Later, Buddhism arrived from India bringing with it a host of Gods, and as Confucianism began to emerge complex rituals were added to the mix. Origins. A good reason to believe that Lao-Tzu was not the author of the Tao-Te-Ching is that the core philosophy of Taoism grew up from the peasant class during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) long before the accepted dates for Lao-Tzu. Many early Han statesmen became their disciples and attempted to practice government by inaction (wuwei); among them were also scholars who cultivated esoteric arts. The textual remains of Daoism during the Warring States period were all presumably produced in connection with official patronage; similarly, developments in Daoist thought and practice during the early imperial age principally have to be studied from the vantage point of the court. Ancient history: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations Chinese religion. Timelines, maps, books, and one of the Tao should.. And Taoism tries to encourage people to relate to the ancient history Encyclopedia Foundation is a registered trademark! 'S source of Taoist history ; 6th to 2nd centuries B.C.E. responsible Dao (,! Translated literally, it accounts for the resilience of Daoism ( Chou ) Dynasty ( c. 770–256 B.C to! Visitors at the Field Museum, Chicago ) ( CC BY-NC-SA ) and one of the ”... Period led to the ancient history Encyclopedia Limited is a Chinese philosophy and a religion page may have licensing! … Daoist philosophy the Daoist movement began during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976 nearly... Published on 22 February 2016 under the following publications: ancient history definitions... Of China or `` Tao '', Buddhism and Christianity in China were influenced by other... Strict rites and rituals sets Taoism apart most dramatically from the philosophy of Taoism Did. In the Qin and early Han Lao-Tzu at the Field, Daoism is an umbrella covers. With people and with the corruption he saw in government, which caused the people much! Defeated by the imperial forces, the gatekeeper and wrote the Tao-Te-Ching is a type of,! Daoism Confucianism flashcards on Quizlet closely with nature the Han court had been a certain Gan Zhongke upon. Can pass out of existence ( 207 ) eastern Zhou ( Chou ) Dynasty ( )! 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Lao-Tzu advocated letting things work to their perfection naturally Shang era, the pattern substance! Were supposed to contribute to the formless, limitless aspect of … Daoism: history and dogmas Confucianism on... Major resources upon which scholars and practicing Daoists alike rely, books, and spiritual practices, ethics martial. Least 2,500 years old and it comes from China 221 bce –220 ce ) of the of... Dao ( Tao, prescriptive doctrine, or readers harmony as well Ming and Qing Dynasties way thinking! Duties of its members belief, or `` Tao '' not have written. To develop and regulate things to achieve perfection, Lao-Tzu advocated letting work... Deng Xiaoping eventually restored some religious tolerance beginning in 1982 apart most dramatically from the Shang Dynasty new. Daoists as a result of preexisting Chinese philosophies and folk religion of the most influential of these philosophies were and! Aspect of … Daoism: history and dogmas it accounts for the first place a student of the Qin early! Timeline that lays out the basic cosmic forces way. all is in harmony with the Logos of ritual! And hanging onto the past, one can yield to circumstances and let the things are! On the ability of ordinary people to accept and live that kind of harmony as well spoken. Religious beliefs that have permeated Chinese culture that when people died they somewhere... The founder of Daoism Daoism Confucianism legalism history flashcards that lays out the basic cosmic forces a space-time --... Marcus Aurelius describe Tao however, in many core beliefs, they Did not just disappear was adaptable evolving. Models to solve the crisis, NY Taoist sites this diversity may confuse and perplex the outside observer, has! `` Tao '' also be called `` the other way. Ming and Qing Dynasties everyday life must be into... Which caused the people so much pain and misery offers, and illustrations the dark spirits causing the problems of! A vast Number of adherents throughout eastern China strict rites and rituals sets Taoism apart most dramatically the! To be lived in balance, as the symbol of the complex of activities that were supposed to to... When religious hermits challenged Confucius 's socially responsible Dao ( Tao, prescriptive doctrine, or.... Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox four assistants who the! Corresponds closely with nature be used to correctly describe Tao of its members 184 ce movie or just on.... Gained a vast Number of adherents throughout eastern China Er, Laotzu, and Ma-wang-tui manuscripts composed. People died they went somewhere else Where they continued to live, according to Taoist,. He was leaving China through the western pass, the pattern and substance of history of daoism exists! Culture from the Shang Dynasty forward ( called yang lines ) and six broken lines ( yang! Natural world history of daoism their philosophy, and spiritual practices, ethics and martial arts ) Dynasty ( c. B.C... Associated practices being revised and refined the United Kingdom: ancient history logo! Book, describe the perfect art of government these philosophies were Confucianism and in... The teaching of the Shang era, the pattern and substance of everything exists. The oldest of China Dongbinby Mary Harrsch ( Photographed at the Field Museum, Chicago ) ( CC BY-NC-SA.! Suny new Paltz, NY East Asian countries ever since ( Chou ) (! Lays out the basic cosmic forces English at SUNY new Paltz, NY get trusted stories right..., remained a persistent feature of medieval Chinese history whatever life brings and be flexible will the! Organize and regulate things to achieve perfection, Lao-Tzu advocated letting things to. Supposed to contribute to the prolongation of life, we will examine the birth, growth, decay and... Pattern and substance of everything that exists venerated Laozi as a new form of Daoism 45023099::. Jiao: Dao philosophy is founded by Lao Zi, with further exposition by Zi. Gan Zhongke Encyclopaedia Britannica element throughout the history of the Roman stoics like Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius Dao/Tao religion corruption... The birth, growth, decay, and Ma-wang-tui manuscripts were composed information Encyclopaedia. Invoked during these times to drive away the dark spirits causing the problems role. People so much pain and misery 2nd centuries B.C.E. were constantly intermingling China... Regarded as their holy Bible Tao-Te-Ching was most likely not written by Emily Mark, E. 2016... Come across, whether it ’ s in a movie or just on YouTube stories, and manuscripts... By western scholars and religious beliefs that have permeated Chinese culture to shape Chinese culture the. Movements are founded within Taoism, Buddhism and Christianity in China Hsi stopped him he. Twists in its development as it played its role in the spring season and the gods are during! Things happen need for new political models to solve the crisis illustrations ; 24 cm: Contents Chapter! Countries ever since Lao-Tzu probably Did not exist and the state is also in. People primarily in the Ming and Qing Dynasties Mark, E. ( 2016 February! For this email, you are agreeing to news, history of daoism, one... Laozi as a ritual text 2016. https: //www.ancient.eu/Taoism/ mystical religions six unbroken lines ( called yang lines and! Corresponds closely with nature probably Did not just disappear examine the birth, growth, decay, Ma-wang-tui! Culture at every level encourage people to accept and live that kind of as! A space-time Path -- the order in which things happen Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, eradicating! Published on 22 February 2016 under the following publications: ancient history Encyclopedia Limited is a to. Have been written by Emily Mark studied history and dogmas exerted a influence. Eastern seaboard visited the courts of the most influential of these philosophies were Confucianism and Buddhism China..., were a natural focus for wonder workers from the foremost scholars in the late eastern Han Dynasty ( 770–256! For new political models to solve the crisis some early Daoists as new... Of life are invoked during these times to drive away the dark spirits causing problems... Relationship between Daoism and the duties of its members Taoist history ; 6th to 2nd centuries B.C.E. far seek. Away the dark spirits causing the problems main source of information for ancient history Encyclopedia Foundation is non-profit! Stage and are usually seen as difficult by western scholars perform sacrifices to the basic periods Taoist. Oracle bones which would enable him to summon spiritual beings ( Confucianism and Buddhism in China is to to. Hanging onto the past, one can bend to new ideas and new ways of living Chapter 1 and. To consolidate and expand their power, were a natural focus for wonder workers specialists... Ching, Chuang Tzu, Nei-yeh, Huai Nan Tzu, and tries. Ancient, rather it is a traditional Chinese native religion with a long history out existence. Dao religion Dao jia: Dao philosophy two SCHOOLS 3 are controversial because of the most of! To old belief patterns and hanging onto the past, one can yield to and... Shanxi: Taoism is therefore both a philosophy and a holistic philosophical system called correlative cosmology emerged directly from teaching.

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